This tutorial introduces the neuroeconomics perspective on behavioral neuroscience. The main thesis I want to defend is that Cartesian Dualism has guided so far the interpretation of neuroscience experiments. However, a new point of view should be adopted in order to provided a sound interpretation to recent experimental evidences. Such a new point of view should incorporate two assumptions:
Tthe notion that uncertainty is present in the world and that the behavior of neurons should be interpreted in statistical terms.
Random behavior should not be the interpreted as an epistemological limitation but could be "per-se" an optimal strategy animals adopt to maximize their fitness.